I-Wisepowder inoluhlu olupheleleyo lwezixhobo zesifo se-Alzheimer, kwaye inenkqubo yolawulo lomgangatho iyonke.

Ibonisa i-1-4 yeziphumo ezingama-8

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Isifo sika-Alzheimer

Isifo se-Alzheimer luhlobo oluqhubekayo lwesifo sengqondo esixhalabisayo. Isifo sengqondo esixhalabisayo ligama elibanzi leemeko ezibangelwa kukonzakala kwengqondo okanye izifo ezichaphazela kakubi inkumbulo, ukucinga nokuziphatha. Olu tshintsho luphazamisa ubomi bemihla ngemihla.
NgokukaMbutho we-Alzheimer, isifo se-Alzheimer sibala i-60 ukuya kwi-80 yepesenti yamatyala esi sifo. Uninzi lwabantu abanesi sifo bafumana ukuxilongwa emva kweminyaka yobudala engama-65. Ukuba sifunyenwe ngaphambi koko, kubhekiswa kuso njengesifo i-Alzheimer's kwangoko.

Izizathu zesifo sika-Alzheimer

Unobangela (we) wesifo sika-Alzheimer (awaziwa). I "amyloid cascade hypothesis" yeyona ngxoxo ixoxwa kakhulu kwaye iphandwe malunga nesifo se-Alzheimer's. Olona lwazi lomeleleyo luxhasa i-amyloid cascade hypothesis luvela kuphononongo lokuqala lwe-Alzheimer's. Utshintsho olunxulumene nesifo se-Alzheimer lufunyenwe malunga nesiqingatha sezigulana ezinesifo sokuqala kwangoko. Kuzo zonke ezi zigulana, utshintsho lukhokelela kwimveliso egqithisileyo kwingqondo yohlobo oluthile lwesahlulo esincinci seprotein esibizwa ngokuba yiABeta (Aβ). Izazinzulu ezininzi zikholelwa kwelokuba uninzi lweziganeko ezenzeka manqaphanqapha (umzekelo, ezingezizo ilifa) zesifo se-Alzheimer (ezi zenza uninzi lwazo zonke izigulo zesifo i-Alzheimer) kuncinci ukususwa kwale proteni ye-Aβ endaweni yemveliso eninzi. Ngayiphi na imeko, uninzi lophando ekufumaneni iindlela zokuthintela okanye ukucothisa isifo se-Alzheimer lujolise kwiindlela zokunciphisa inani le-Aβ kwingqondo.

Iimpawu ze-Alzheimer's

Wonke umntu uneziqendu zokulibala amaxesha ngamaxesha. Kodwa abantu abanesifo se-Alzheimer babonisa isimilo esithile esiqhubekayo kunye neempawu eziba mandundu ngokuhamba kwexesha. Oku kunokubandakanya:
  • Ukuphulukana nenkumbulo okuchaphazela imisebenzi yemihla ngemihla, njengokukwazi ukugcina ixesha lokuqeshwa
  • ingxaki ngemisebenzi eqhelekileyo, njengokusebenzisa i-microwave
  • ubunzima ngokusombulula iingxaki
  • ingxaki yokuthetha okanye ukubhala
  • ukudideka malunga namaxesha okanye iindawo
  • ukunciphisa isigwebo
  • ukunciphisa ucoceko lomntu
  • imo kunye notshintsho kubuntu
  • Ukurhoxa kubahlobo, usapho, kunye noluntu
Iimpawu zesifo sika-Alzheimer ziya kutshintsha ngokwenqanaba lesi sifo.

Unyango lwe-Alzheimer's

Akukho lunyango lonyango lwesifo se-Alzheimer, unyango olufumanekayo lubonelela ngesibonelelo esincinci seempawu kodwa luhlale lunyulu kwindalo.
Unyango lwesifo i-Alzheimer luquka amayeza asekwe kunye non-amayeza asekwe. Iiklasi ezimbini ezahlukeneyo zoxubo mayeza zivunyiwe yi-FDA yokunyanga isifo se-Alzheimer: i-cholinesterase inhibitors kunye ne-glutamate antagonists. Akukho klasi leziyobisi elingqinisisiweyo ukuba liyalicothisa inqanaba lokuqhubela phambili kwesifo se-Alzheimer's. Nangona kunjalo, uninzi lwezilingo zeklinikhi zibonisa ukuba la mayeza aphezulu kune-placebos (iipilisi zeswekile) ekupheliseni iimpawu ezithile.
Unyango olusekwe kumayeza
▪ IiCholinesterase inhibitors (ii-ChEIs)
Kwizigulana ezinesifo sika-Alzheimer kukho ukunqongophala kwesiyobisi semichiza yengqondo ebizwa ngokuba yi-acetylcholine. Uphando olukhulu lubonakalisile ukuba i-acetylcholine ibalulekile kwisakhono sokwenza iinkumbulo ezintsha. I-cholinesterase inhibitors (i-ChEIs) ibhloka ukonakala kwe-acetylcholine. Ngenxa yoko, i-acetylcholine ngakumbi iyafumaneka kwingqondo, kwaye kunokuba lula ukwenza iinkumbulo ezintsha.
Ii-CHEI ezine zivunyiwe yi-FDA, kodwa kwenziwe kuphela i-pezil hydrochloride (Aricept), i-rivastigmine (i-Exelon), kunye ne-galantamine (i-Razadyne - eyayibizwa ngokuba yi-Reminyl) isetyenziswa ngoogqirha abaninzi kuba ichiza lesine, itacrine (Cognex) ineziphumo ebezingalindelekanga kunabanye abathathu. Uninzi lweengcali kwisifo se-Alzheimer azikholelwa ukuba kukho umahluko obalulekileyo ekusebenzeni kwala machiza mathathu. Izifundo ezininzi zicebisa ukuba ukuqhubela phambili kweempawu zezigulana kula machiza kubonakala ngathi kulithafa iinyanga ezintandathu ukuya kwezili-12, kodwa ukuqhubela phambili ngokungathandabuzekiyo kuyaqala kwakhona.
Kwezi CHEI zintathu zisetyenziswa ngokubanzi, i-rivastigmine kunye ne-galantamine zivunywa kuphela yi-FDA yesifo se-Alzheimer esishushu, ngelixa i-donepezil ivunyiwe kwisifo se-Alzheimer's. Ayaziwa ukuba i-rivastigmine kunye ne-galantamine ziyasebenza nakwisifo se-Alzheimer, nangona kubonakala ngathi akukho sizathu sokuba kungafanelekanga.
Iziphumo ebezingalindelekanga eziphambili ze-CHEIs zibandakanya inkqubo yamathumbu kwaye zibandakanya isicaphucaphu, ukugabha, ukubamba, kunye norhudo. Ngokwesiqhelo iziphumo ebezingalindelekanga zinokulawulwa ngotshintsho kubungakanani okanye ixesha ledosi okanye ukuhambisa amayeza ngenani elincinci lokutya. Uninzi lwezigulana luya kuzinyamezela iidosi zonyango ze-ChEIs.
▪ Inxalenye echasene ne-glutamate antagonists
I-Glutamate yeyona neurotransmitter inomdla kakhulu kwingqondo. Enye ithiyori ibonisa ukuba i-glutamate eninzi inokuba mbi kwingqondo kwaye ibangele ukonakala kweeseli zemithambo-luvo. I-Memantine (i-Namenda) isebenza ngokunciphisa ngokuthe ngcembe isiphumo se-glutamate ukwenza ukuba iiseli zemithambo-luvo zisebenze. Izifundo zibonise ukuba ezinye izigulana ezikwi-memantine zinokuzinakekela ngcono kunezigulana ezineepilisi zeswekile (i-placebos). I-Memantine yamkelwe ukuze inyangwe isifo sengqondo esixhalabisayo nesomeleleyo, kwaye izifundo azibonisanga ukuba ziluncedo kwisifo sengqondo esixhalabisayo. Kuyenzeka ukuba unyange abaguli ngee-AchE zombini kunye nememine ngaphandle kokuphulukana nokusebenza kwamayeza okanye ukwanda kweziphumo ebezingalindelekanga.
Ngaphandle koko, uninzi lwezifundo lubonisa ukuba i-J147, i-CAD-31, i-CMS 121, njl. Iziyobisi ziya kusebenza kwisifo se-Alzheimer kwiimodeli zeempuku zokuguga okukhawulezileyo. I-J147 sisiyobisi sokulinga esineziphumo ezichaziweyo ngokuchasene nesifo sika-Alzheimer kunye nokuguga kwiimodeli zeempuku zokuguga okukhawulezileyo. Kwaye umsebenzi ophuculweyo we-neurogenic ngaphezulu kwe-J147 kwiiseli zangaphambi komntu zeseli zine-derivative yayo ebizwa ngokuba yi-CAD-31.
Unyango olusekwe kunyango
Ukongeza kunyango, utshintsho kwindlela yokuphila lunokunceda isifo se-alzheimer
balawule imeko yabo, njengokufunda iincwadi (kodwa hayi amaphepha-ndaba), ukudlala imidlalo yebhodi, ukugcwalisa iiphazili zamagama, ukudlala izixhobo zomculo, okanye unxibelelwano lwasentlalweni rhoqo kubonisa umngcipheko ophunguliweyo wesifo se-Alzheimer's.

Imbekiselo:

  1. UMatthews, KA, Xu, W., Gaglioti, AH, Holt, JB, Croft, JB, Mack, D., & McGuire, LC (2018). Uqikelelo lobuhlanga nolobuhlanga lwesifo se-Alzheimer kunye nesifo sengqondo esihambelana naso eMelika (2015-2060) kubantu abadala abaneminyaka engama-65. Alzheimer kunye nesifo sengqondo esixhalabisayo. I-icon yangaphandle ye-https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2018.06.3063
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